There are many types of textiles, including ordinary textiles such as clothes and cloth, as well as some outdoor textiles, such as tents, rain cloths, sunshades, outdoor clothing, industrial fabrics and covers. For outdoor textiles, not only light will have an effect on them, but water and high temperature will also have an effect on them. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate outdoor application conditions when designing accelerated aging test conditions. The materials of outdoor textiles include not only plant fibers, but also polyester and coatings.
Relevant International Standards for Textile Test
Regarding the test methods of textile aging resistance or weather resistance, some standards have been formulated, such as ISO1419-1995, AATCC111-2009, AATCC186-2009, etc.
These test methods can be classified into two categories: one is to conduct anti-aging tests directly in the natural environment, and the other is to use heating, humidification, and light to artificially accelerate aging. At present, the latter is the main method. The applicable scope and main test conditions of these methods are as follows:
(1)1SO1419-1995 "Rubber or Plastic Coated Fabric Accelerated Aging Test".
Method 1: The test condition is 100°C, 16h, the scope of application is PVC coated fabrics, the evaluation index is the mass loss of volatile matter in the fabric, and the method is classified as artificial accelerated aging;
Method 2: (general method), the test condition is 70°C, Under normal atmospheric pressure and low oxygen concentration, it is aged for 168 hours or its multiples. It is applicable to various coated fabrics. The evaluation index is the comparison of the same index before and after aging. The method is classified as artificial accelerated aging;
method 3: (tropical test conditions): test conditions It is aged at 70°C and 95% relative humidity for 168 hours or its multiples. It is applicable to various coated fabrics. The evaluation index is the comparison of the same index before and after aging. The method is classified as artificial accelerated aging;
method 4: the test condition is 70°C , 168h, the scope of application is nitrocellulose-based coated fabrics, the evaluation indicators are appearance changes, cracks, and the method is classified as artificial accelerated aging.
(2)AATCC111-2009 "Weather Resistance of Textiles: Sunlight and Climate Exposure".
Method 1: The test condition is to expose to sunlight and natural environment; method: to expose to the sun under natural light filtered by glass and without getting wet. The scope of application is: fabrics for automobiles, decorative fabrics for households, photosensitive materials for clothing, and fabrics for roof structures. The evaluation index is the breaking strength and tearing strength of the fabric before and after aging, the bursting strength and the color difference comparison, and the method is classified as natural aging.
(3)AATCC169-2009 "Weather Resistance of Textiles: Exposure to Xenon Arc Lamp".
Method 1: The temperature of the blackboard is 77°C, the relative humidity is 70%, exposed to the sun for 90 minutes, alternately 30 minutes of light and water spray;
Method 2: The temperature of the blackboard is 77°C, the relative humidity is 70%, exposed to the sun for 60 minutes, alternately in the dark cycle of 60 minutes, without water spray;
Method 3: blackboard temperature 77°C, relative humidity 27%, continuous exposure, no water spray;
method 4: blackboard temperature 63°C, relative humidity 50%, 102min exposure, alternate 18min light and water spray.
The scope of application is all kinds of textile materials, including coated fabrics and their products. The evaluation index is the percentage of residual strength, residual strength or color difference. The method is classified as artificially accelerated aging.
(4)AATCC186-2009 "Weather Resistance of Textiles: Ultraviolet Light and Wet Exposure".
The use of ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength band of 315~400nm and wet exposure. The scope of application is: general application fabrics (outdoor furniture fabrics); thermal shock application fabrics (used in construction sites and other places where thermal shock may occur); motor vehicle exterior application fabrics. The evaluation indicators are the bursting strength, breaking strength and color difference changes of the fabric before and after aging, and the method is classified as artificial accelerated aging.
(5)ASTMD5427-2009 "Implementation Standard for Accelerated Aging of Inflatable Shock Absorbing Fabrics".
The test methods are:
high and low temperature cycle aging,
high temperature aging,
high humidity aging
The test conditions of high and low temperature cycle aging are divided into option A and option B, the highest temperature is 107°C or 105°C, the lowest temperature is –40°C, and one cycle is 96h.
The test conditions for high temperature aging are divided into A and B, among which option A is 120°C, 336h; option B is 105°C, 408h.
The test conditions for high humidity aging are divided into A and B, among which option A is 80°C, relative humidity 95%, 336h; option B is 70°C, relative humidity 95%, 408h.
The test conditions for ozone aging are 40°C, an atmosphere with a relative humidity of 65%, and an ozone concentration of 50% for 60 minutes.
The scope of application is all inflatable and shock-absorbing fabrics, and the evaluation index is not clear, so it needs to be used in conjunction with other standards. The method is classified as artificially accelerated aging.
(6)FZ/TO1008—2008 "Determination of Heat Air Aging Resistance of Coated Fabrics".
The test conditions, scope of application and evaluation indicators are the same as ISO1419, and the method is classified as artificial accelerated aging.
(7)FZ/T75002~—1993 "Accelerated Light Aging Test Method for Coated Fabrics"
Test conditions are the highest blackboard temperature of 58°C and moderate effective relative humidity. The scope of application is all kinds of coated fabrics, and the evaluation index is the appearance change. The comparison of the same index before and after aging, the method is classified as artificial accelerated aging.
Preparation for Textile Test
In fact, textiles are exposed to a wide range of temperature fluctuations during use, especially outdoors. Therefore, a new test method for the anti-aging performance of textiles should be developed to simulate the extreme conditions of such temperature fluctuations. In addition, the anti-aging performance of textiles can be tested under the conditions of simulating harmful gases such as trace sulfides and nitrogen oxides in the test atmosphere.
During the aging process of textiles, the changes in its microscopic level and molecular structure are also the contents that need to be considered in the future development of test methods. According to the research results, under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays, carbon-based peaks will appear in the infrared reflection spectrum of fibers such as cotton, wool, polyester, nylon, acrylic fiber, and polypropylene fiber, and with the extension of ultraviolet irradiation time, the carbon-based content in the fibers will decrease or Increase. Therefore, the change of carbon-based content in fibers can be considered to characterize the degree of textile aging. The introduction of this index can describe the degree of textile aging from the molecular structure level, and improve the evaluation model of textile anti-aging performance.
In order to further improve the test method of textile anti-aging performance, the following work needs to be done well:
(1) To better simulate the actual use environment of textiles by increasing light radiation, simulating extreme conditions of temperature fluctuations, and adding harmful gases such as sulfides and nitrogen oxides in the test atmosphere.
(2) Introduce the content change of the radical in the fiber or other quantitative indicators to improve the evaluation of the anti-aging performance of textiles.
Application of Xenon and UV Aging Chamber in Textile Aging Test
Textiles, such as fabrics, fibers and yarns, are often subjected to xenon arc aging tests to assess their resistance to UV radiation and simulate the effects of long-term exposure to sunlight. Xenon arc aging testing is an important method for evaluating the durability and performance of textiles in outdoor applications, as prolonged exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation can cause various types of degradation or damage to textiles over time.
UV radiation from sunlight can have a variety of adverse effects on textiles, including:Fade:UV radiation can cause fading or discoloration of textiles, especially those exposed to direct sunlight for extended periods of time. This can lead to loss of aesthetics and visual degradation of the textile.
Loss of strength and flexibility:UV radiation reduces the mechanical properties of textiles, including strength, flexibility and elongation. This results in reduced performance, structural integrity and service life of the textile material.
Surface Degradation:UV radiation can cause the surface of textiles to degrade, causing fibers to weaken and the surface to crack or flake off. This can result in a rough or frayed texture, reducing comfort and affecting the performance of the textile material.
Degradation of functional properties:UV radiation can also reduce the functional properties of textiles, such as water resistance, flame retardancy or antimicrobial properties, which may be important for specific applications. This can cause textile materials to lose desired functionality and properties.
The effects of long-term exposure to sunlight can be simulated in a controlled laboratory environment by subjecting textiles to xenon arc aging testing. This allows accelerated testing of the resistance of textile materials to UV radiation and helps assess their durability and performance over time. Xenon arc aging testing typically involves exposing textile samples to intense ultraviolet radiation from a xenon arc for extended periods of time while controlling temperature, humidity, and other environmental factors to simulate outdoor conditions. Properties of textile materials such as color change, loss of strength, surface degradation and changes in functional properties can be assessed before and after exposure to assess their resistance to UV radiation and their suitability for outdoor applications.
All in all, xenon arc aging testing is a key method for evaluating the durability and performance of textiles, especially those intended for outdoor applications, to ensure they can withstand prolonged exposure to sunlight and other environmental factors and maintain their durability over time. Its performance and beauty. This is especially important for use in outdoor clothing, furniture, awnings, tents and other applications where exposure to sunlight is unavoidable.
Testing textiles using xenon arc weathering typically involves the following steps:
Identify Textiles to Test:Identify specific textiles that need to be tested for their resistance to UV radiation and the effects of long-term sun exposure. These may include fabrics, fibers, yarns or other textile materials used in outdoor applications such as clothing, furniture, awnings, tents or other products.
Choose the right xenon arc aging test equipment:choose the xenon arc aging test equipment suitable for the type of textile to be tested and the required test conditions. Xenon arc aging test equipment usually consists of a xenon arc chamber that emits intense ultraviolet radiation and a control system to regulate temperature, humidity, and other environmental factors. LIB Xenon arc is the best choice.
Prepare Specimens:Prepare textile specimens according to the requirements of the xenon arc weathering test equipment, which may involve cutting or shaping the textile material to the appropriate size or shape, and conditioning the specimens to standard environmental conditions if necessary.
Carry out xenon arc aging test:put the prepared textile sample into the xenon arc aging chamber and start the test. Follow the test parameters specified in the test standard or guideline, including exposure time, UV radiation intensity, temperature, humidity and other environmental conditions.
Monitoring and Evaluating Test Samples:Monitor test samples during xenon arc aging testing to observe any changes in color, strength, flexibility, surface degradation, or functional properties. Periodically record observations and measurements throughout the test period.
Analyzing test data:After the test is complete, collect and analyze the data obtained from the test, including measurements, observations, and any other relevant information. Compare the results with performance requirements or specifications to assess the textile material's resistance to UV radiation and the effects of long-term sun exposure.
Interpret and report results:Interpret xenon arc weathering test results and prepare comprehensive reports summarizing findings. Include information about test parameters, exposure conditions, results, and any observations or conclusions. Test reports can be used for internal quality control purposes, regulatory compliance or communication with stakeholders.
Take necessary actions based on the results:Based on the test results, take appropriate actions such as making design or material modifications, selecting alternative textiles, or implementing maintenance or protective measures to ensure that the textile meets the required performance in terms of UV resistance and durability standard.
LIB reminds you: Xenon arc aging testing should be performed by qualified personnel using appropriate equipment and facilities, following established testing procedures, and complying with relevant industry standards or regulations. Consulting with a specialist or accredited laboratory can help ensure accurate and reliable results. As we have much experience in this field, if you have any questions, contact us now.